Category Archives: Uncategorized

Sending Alerts With Graphite Graphs From Nagios


The way I’m doing this relies on a feature I wrote for Graphite that was only recently merged to trunk, so at time of writing that feature isn’t in a stable release. Hopefully it’ll be in 0.9.10. Until then, you can at least test this setup using Graphite’s trunk version.

Oh yeah, the new feature is the ability to send graph images (not links) via email. I surfaced this feature in Graphite through the graph menus that pop up when you click on a graph in Graphite, but implemented it such that it’s pretty easy to call from a script (which I also wrote – you’ll see if you read the post).

Also, note that I assume you already know Nagios, how to install new command scripts, and all that. It’s really easy to figure this stuff out in Nagios, and it’s well-documented elsewhere, so I don’t cover anything here but the configuration of this new feature.

The Idea

I’m not a huge fan of Nagios, to be honest. As far as I know, nobody really is. We all just use it because it’s there, and the alternatives are either overkill, unstable, too complex, or just don’t provide much value for all the extra overhead that comes with them (whether that’s config overhead, administrative overhead, processing overhead, or whatever depends on the specific alternative you’re looking at). So… Nagios it is.

One thing that *is* pretty nice about Nagios is that configuration is really dead simple. Another thing is that you can do pretty much whatever you want with it, and write code in any language you want to get things done. We’ll take advantage of these two features to actually do a couple of things:

  • Monitor a metric by polling Graphite for it directly
  • Tell Nagios to fire off a script that’ll go get the graph for the problematic metric, and send email with the graph embedded in it to the configured contacts.
  • Record that we sent the alert back in Graphite, so we can overlay those events on the corresponding metric graph and verify that alerts are going out when they should, that the outgoing alerts are hitting your phone without delay, etc.

The Candy

Just to be clear, we’re going to set things up so you can get alert messages from Nagios that look like this (click to enlarge):

And you’ll also be able to track those alert events in Graphite in graphs that look like this (click to enlarge, and note the vertical lines – those are the alert events.):

Defining Contacts

In production, it’s possible that the proper contacts and contact groups already exist. For testing (and maybe production) you might find that you want to limit who receives graphite graphs in email notifications. To test things out, I defined:

  • A new contact template that’s configured specifically to receive the graphite graphs. Without this, no graphs.
  • A new contact that uses the template
  • A new contact group containing said contact.

For testing, you can create a test contact in templates.cfg:

define contact{
        name                            graphite-contact 
        service_notification_period     24x7            
        host_notification_period        24x7 
        service_notification_options    w,u,c,r,f,s 
        host_notification_options       d,u,r,f,s  
        service_notification_commands   notify-svcgraph-by-email
        host_notification_commands      notify-host-by-email
        register                        0

You’ll notice a few things here:

  • This is not a contact, only a template.
  • Any contact defined using this template will be notified of service issues with the command ‘notify-svcgraph-by-email’, which we’ll define in a moment.

In contacts.cfg, you can now define an individual contact that uses the graphite-contact template we just assembled:

define contact{
        contact_name    graphiteuser
        use             graphite-contact 
        alias           Graphite User

Of course, you’ll want to change the ‘email’ attribute here, even for testing.

Once done, you also want to have a contact group set up that contains this new ‘graphiteuser’, so that you can add users to the group to expand the testing, or evolve things into production. This is also done in contacts.cfg:

define contactgroup{
        contactgroup_name       graphiteadmins
        alias                   Graphite Administrators
        members                 graphiteuser

Defining a Service

Also for testing, you can set up a test service, necessary in this case to bypass default settings that seek to not bombard contacts by sending an email for every single aberrant check. Since the end result of this test is to see an email, we want to get an email for every check where the values are in any way out of bounds. In templates.cfg put this:

define service{
    name                        test-service
    use                         generic-service
    passive_checks_enabled      0
    contact_groups              graphiteadmins
    check_interval              20
    retry_interval              2
    notification_options        w,u,c,r,f
    notification_interval       30
    first_notification_delay    0
    flap_detection_enabled      1
    max_check_attempts          2
    register                    0

Again, the key point here is to insure that no notifications are ever silenced, deferred, or delayed by nagios in any way, for any reason. You probably don’t want this in production. The other point is that when you set up an alert for a service that uses ‘test-service’ in its definition, the alerts will go to our previously defined ‘graphiteadmins’.

To make use of this service, I’ve defined a service in ‘localhost.cfg’ that will require further explanation, but first let’s just look at the definition:

define service{
        use                             test-service 
        host_name                       localhost
        service_description             Some Important Metric
        check_command                   check_graphite_data!24!36
        notifications_enabled           1

There are two new things we need to understand when looking at this definition:

  • What is ‘check_graphite_data’?
  • What is ‘_GRAPHURL’?

These questions are answered in the following section.

In addition, you should know that the value for _GRAPHURL is intended to come straight from the Graphite dashboard. Go to your dashboard, pick a graph of a single metric, grab the URL for the graph, and paste it in (and double-quote it).

Defining the ‘check_graphite_data’ Command

This command relies on a small script written by the folks at Etsy, which can be found on github:

Here’s the commands.cfg definition for the command:

# 'check_graphite_data' command definition
define command{
        command_name    check_graphite_data
        command_line    $USER1$/check_graphite_data -u $_SERVICEGRAPHURL$ -w $ARG1$ -c $ARG2$

The ‘command_line’ attribute calls the check_graphite_data script we got on github earlier. The ‘-u’ flag is a URL, and this is actually using the custom object attribute ‘_GRAPHURL’ from our service definition. You can see more about custom object variables here: - the short story is that, since we defined _GRAPHURL in a service definition, it gets prepended with ‘SERVICE’, and the underscore in ‘_GRAPHURL’ moves to the front, giving you ‘$_SERVICEGRAPHURL’. More on how that works at the link provided.

The ‘-w’ and ‘-c’ flags to check_graphte_data are ‘warning’ and ‘critical’ thresholds, respectively, and they correlate to the positions of the service definition’s ‘check_command’ arguments (so, check_graphite_data!24!36 maps to ‘check_graphite_data -u <url> -w 24 -c 36′)

Defining the ‘notify-svcgraph-by-email’ Command

This command relies on a script that I wrote in Python called ‘’, which also lives in github:

The script does two things:

  • It emails the graph that corresponds to the metric being checked by Nagios, and
  • It pings back to graphite to record the alert itself as an event, so you can define a graph for, say, ‘Apache Load’, and if you use this script to alert on that metric, you can also overlay the alert events on top of the ‘Apache Load’ graph, and vet that alerts are going out when you expect. It’s also a good test to see that you’re actually getting the alerts this script tries to send, and that they’re not being dropped or seriously delayed.

To make use of the script in nagios, lets define the command that actually sends the alert:

define command{
    command_name    notify-svcgraph-by-email
    command_line    /path/to/ -u "$_SERVICEGRAPHURL$" -t $CONTACTEMAIL$ -n "$SERVICEDESC$" -s $SERVICESTATE$

A couple of quick notes:

  • Notice that you need to double-quote any variables in the ‘command_line’ that might contain spaces.
  • For a definition of the command line flags, see’s –help output.
  • Just to close the loop, note that notify-svcgraph-by-email is the ‘service_notification_commands’ value in our initial contact template (the very first listing in this post)

Fire It Up

Fire up your Nagios daemon to take it for a spin. For testing, make sure you set the check_graphite_data thresholds to numbers that are pretty much guaranteed to trigger an alert when Graphite is polled. Hope this helps! If you have questions, first make sure you’re using Graphite’s ‘trunk’ branch, and not 0.9.9, and then give me a shout in the comments.

Book Review: Python Standard Library by Example

Quick Facts:

  • Author: Doug Hellmann
  • Pages: 1344
  • Publisher: Addison-Wesley (Developer’s Library)
  • ETA: June 5, 2011
  • Amazon link:

What this book says it does:

From the book’s description:

This book is a collection of essays and example programs demonstrating how to use more than 100 modules from Python standard library. It goes beyond the documentation available on to show real programs using the modules and demonstrating how you can use them in your daily programming tasks.

What this book actually does:

This book actually kinda rocks, in part because of its a unique take on documentation of the Python standard library. The Python standard library documentation is actually a pretty good high-level reference, and this book doesn’t seek to duplicate what’s there. Instead, it specifically seeks out places in the existing documentation that are underdocumented, undocumented, don’t have clear enough examples, or just don’t provide the value to the end user that they should for whatever reason. Even as good as the standard library documentation is, Doug easily cranked out 1000+ pages of invaluable information that has given me a much greater insight into the standard library modules that I use on a regular basis (and plenty that I don’t use on a regular basis).

How it works

The book is simply laid out by module. Using the multiprocessing module? It’s right there in the Table of Contents. It’s as easy to use as the standard library docs from a navigational perspective, and the index, it could be argued, is an improvement over’s  search behavior.

When you get to the module you’re looking for, you’ll primarily see code. There is enough English text to explain what the code actually does, but the main illustrative tool in this book is the code. This is not an easy thing to accomplish, but Doug provides a very nice and balanced presentation of the real meaty parts of your favorite standard library modules.

What’s Great About it

First, it provides both depth and breadth, it’s easy to find whatever you’re looking for, and if it’s not needed (usually because it’s well-covered in the standard library docs) it’s not there.

Second, the book is written by an authoritative, knowledgeable, experienced, and prolific Python developer. While he’s a creative thinker, his work is balanced by a healthy dose of pragmatism and grounded in best practices. Contrived as the examples might get at times, you won’t typically find code written by Doug that would garner sideways glances by experienced Python developers.

Third, it’s not a rehashing of the docs. In fact it skips coverage of things that are well-documented in the docs. Yes, the book does contain simple introductory material for each module to give the uninitiated some context, but that’s different from a book that takes existing docs and just moves the letters around. Doug does a great job of getting you into the good stuff without much fluff.

Fourth, there’s almost zero fluff. I’d love to see a statistical breakdown of the number of lines of code vs. text in this book. And the good part really isn’t that he’s put so much code in the book, it’s that he presents with code alongside the text in a way that insures readers don’t get lost.

Fifth, this wasn’t a rush job. Doug has been writing this content in the form of his Python Module of the Week blog series for a few years now. Most of the work was editing, finessing, updating, and testing (and retesting) the code, not developing the content from scratch. So what’s there in the book is not just a braindump from Doug’s brain: it’s had the benefit of peer review and feedback from the blog, email, etc., and that adds a ton of value to the final product in my eyes.

What’s Not Great About it

I insist on including bad things about everything I review, because nothing is perfect, and the more people talk about things they don’t like, the more makers start to listen and make things better.

To be honest, the only thing I found lacking in this book is the index. This should not shock anyone who is a tech bibliophile. Most indexes, at least on tech books, are pretty bad (ironic since tech books often serve as references, which makes the index pretty crucial). Also, consider that this review is based on a review copy of the book, so it’s possible that the final version will have a totally awesome index.

Ah, one other thing (which also might be due to this being a review copy): there are no tab markers. Since Python defines scope using whitespace, not having indentation markers in any medium containing page breaks can lead to confusion if a code sample crosses page boundaries. The alternative to having the markers is to insure that the code samples don’t cross page boundaries. It’s not possible for me to know if they’ll do one or both of these before the final printing.

The Final Word

My petty complaints about the index and indentation markers are not only trivial, but they both may be fixed in the final printing. I saw nothing so bad that I wouldn’t highly recommend this book, and I’ve seen tons and tons of stuff that would make me highly recommend this book. I’m using this book myself on a fairly regular basis, and it’s an effective, easy-to-use tool that makes a great companion reference to the standard library.

Buy it.

Lessons Learned Porting Dateutil to Python 3

The dateutil module is a very popular third-party (pure) Python module that makes it easier (and in some cases, possible) to perform more advanced manipulations on dates and date ranges than simply using some combination of Python’s ‘included batteries’ like the datetime, time and calendar modules.

Dateutil does fuzzy date matching, Easter calculations in the past and future, relative time delta calculations, time zone manipulation, and lots more, all in one nicely bundled package.

I decided to port dateutil to Python 3.


For those who haven’t been following along at home, David Beazley and I are working on the upcoming Python Cookbook 3rd Edition, which will contain only Python 3 recipes. Python 2 will probably only get any real treatment when we talk about porting code.

When I went back to the 2nd edition of the book to figure out what modules are used heavily that might not be compatible with Python 3, dateutil stuck out. It’s probably in half or more of the recipes in the ‘Time and Money’ chapter in the 2nd Edition. I decided to give it a look.

How Long Did it Take?

Less than one work day. Seriously. It was probably 4-5 hours in total, including looking at documentation and getting to know dateutil. I downloaded it, I ran 2to3 on it without letting 2to3 do the in-place edits, scanned the output for anything that looked ominous (there were a couple of things that looked a lot worse than they turned out to be), and once satisfied that it wasn’t going to do things that were dumb, I let ‘er rip: I ran 2to3 and told it to go ahead and change the files (2to3 makes backup copies of all edited files by default, by the way).

What Was the Hardest Part?

Well, there were a few unit tests that used the base64 module to decode some time zone file data into a StringIO object before passing the file-like object to the code under test (I believe the code under test was the relativedelta module). Inside there, the file-like StringIO object is subjected to a bunch of struct.unpack() calls, and there are a couple of plain strings that get routed elsewhere.

The issue with this is that there are NO methods inside the base64 module that return strings anymore, which makes creating the StringIO object more challenging. All base64 methods return Python bytes objects. So, I replaced the StringIO object with a BytesIO object, all of the struct.unpack() calls “just worked”, and the strings that were actually needed as strings in the code had a ‘.decode()’ appended to them to convert the bytes back to strings. All was well with the world.

What Made it Easier?

Two things, smaller one first:

First, Python built-in modules for date handling haven’t been flipped around much, and dateutil doesn’t have any dependencies outside the standard library (hm, maybe that’s 2 things right there). The namespaces for date manipulation modules are identical to Python 2, and I believe for the most part all of the methods act the same way. There might be some under-the-hood changes where things return memoryview objects or iterators instead of lists or something, but in this and other porting projects involving dates, that stuff has been pretty much a non-event most of the time

But the A #1 biggest thing that made this whole thing take less than a day instead of more than a week? Tests.

Dateutil landed on my hard drive with 478 tests (the main module has about 3600 lines of actual code, and the tests by themselves are roughly 4000 lines of code). As a result, I didn’t have to manually check all kinds of functionality or write my own tests. I was able to port the tests fairly easily with just a couple of glitches (like the aforementioned base64 issue). From there I felt confident that the tests were testing the code properly.

In the past couple of days since I completed the ‘project’, I ported some of the dateutil recipes from the 2nd edition of the book to Python 3, just for some extra assurance. I ported 5 recipes in under an hour. They all worked.

Had You Ported Stuff Before?

Well, to be honest most of my Python 3 experience (pre-book, that is) is with writing new code. To gain a broader exposure to Python 3, I’ve also done lots of little code golf-type labs, impromptu REPL-based testing at work for things I’m doing there, etc. I have ported a couple of other small projects, and I have had to solve a couple of issues, but it’s not like I’ve ever ported something the size of Django or ReportLab or something.

The Best Part?

I had never seen dateutil in my life.

I had read about it (I owned the Python Cookbook 2nd Edition since its initial release, after all), but I’d never been a user of the project.

The Lessons?

  1. This is totally doable. Stop listening to the fear-inducing rantings of naysayers. Don’t let them hold you back. The pink ponies are in front of you, not behind you.
  2. There are, in fact, parts of Python that remain almost unchanged in Python 3. I would imagine that even Django may find that there are swaths of code that “just works” in Python 3. I’ll be interested to see metrics about that (dear Django: keep metrics on your porting project!)
  3. Making a separation between text and data in the language is actually a good thing, and in the places where it bytes you (couldn’t resist, sorry), it will likely make sense if you have a fundamental understanding of why text and data aren’t the same thing. I predict that, in 2012, most will view complainers about this change the same way we view whitespace haters today.

“I Can’t Port Because…”

If you’re still skeptical, or you have questions, or you’re trying and having real problems, Dave and I would both love for *you* to come to our tutorial at PyCon. Or just come to PyCon so we can hack in the hallway on it. I’ve ported, or am in the process of porting, 3 modules to Python 3. Dave has single-handedly ported something like 3-5 modules to Python 3 in the past 6 weeks or so. He’s diabolical.

I’d love to help you out, and if it turns out I can’t, I’d love to learn more about the issue so we can shine a light on it for the rest of the community. Is it a simple matter of documentation? Is it a bug? Is it something more serious? Let’s figure it out and leverage the amazing pool of talent at PyCon to both learn about the issue and hopefully get to a solution.

PyCon 2011 Predictions

PyCon 2011 is right around the corner. Are you going? You should. The talks are sick. You can still register – it’s too late to be an early bird, but registration is still open!

Well, I am, and I’m here to get the rumor mill started by sharing some predictions for this year’s PyCon.


While last year there was some hubbub around packaging, most notably the poster images declaring that pip and distribute were ‘the new black’, this year that’s old news. The pip and distribute mantra will bear repeating for those who are still behind the times of course, but this year I think there will be more hand-wringing over packaging, probably focusing more on the data and distribution mechanism than the tools. I, for one, am looking forward to any light Tarek Ziade and other’s on the distutils2 team can shed on new metadata elements, new build procedures (I hear is going away someday), and what’s going on with distutils, distribute, pip, distutils2, PyPI, etc.

My prediction? Packaging, while not very exciting, will garner a lot of attention again this year.

Python 3

Dave Beazley and I will be doing a tutorial on Python 3, but besides that, I think there’s going to be a lot of hallway (and lounge) discussion about all things Python 3. This would mirror the clamor around the topic recently online, which I don’t really expect to slow down. Python 3 is, of course, discussed every year, but I think this year’s PyCon will be Python 3′s Woodstock: the time and place where minds merge onto an idea together and harmonize and all that stuff.

My prediction? We’ll see a good number of commitments from projects to port to Python 3, GSOC projects related to Python 3, and more funny looks at projects not getting their porting underway in 2011 as a direct result of PyCon 2011.


Multiprocessing and threading will be hot topics again for two reasons: First, lots of people just look at the GIL and reflexively get heartburn without doing any actual analysis to see if they even need to care about it in the context of a particular application. Second, the uptake for Python in ‘web scale’ environments continues to grow, so that’s bound to be reflected in the attendee demographics if you will, and therefore the perceived interest in the topic.

PyPy is going to loom large at this year’s conference. Some may decide after PyCon 2011 that PyPy is the future for them. Unladen Swallow will be declared dead, in spite of some eager undergrads making empty promises about picking it up. Most who care will opt for the project that appears to be gaining steam, not losing it.

Generator-based coroutines will continue to be a really cool but relatively unused oddity, and Eventlet and the like will continue to have their adherents and go with the flow.

Event-based/async frameworks will garner some attention. Tornado, gUnicorn, and others will do well. Twisted followers will say that all others are either redundant or fatally flawed.

My prediction? Tornado and ZeroMQ will make a big splash, this being the first year it’s being covered (I think). People will still advocate multiprocessing over threading after the conference, and Twisted will start to see declines in usership after PyCon 2011.


  • Python core development contributions will increase thanks to efforts by the PSF and core development communities, though not without some growing pains.
  • Michael Foord’s ‘mock‘ library will take off as a de facto standard module in the toolbelts of Python developers everywhere.
  • Fabric’s parallel branch will be merged as the default either before or as a result of activity at PyCon 2011.
  • Flask will announce a merger with another web framework in 2011, in part due to conversations and activity at PyCon.
  • PyCharm will become recognized as the preeminent Python IDE as a result of everyone getting to PyCon only to find that everyone else they were going to advocate it to is already using it.
  • Some outside the scientific community will attend a Python-Science talk anyway and come away with valuable techniques they can apply to distributed computing problems. Some outside the web scalability domain will attend related talks anyway and take something back to the enterprise computing space. Some outside the cloud space will attend a cloud talk and find a cool project to put in the cloud. As a result:
  • At least 30 new Python projects will be created as a direct result of PyCon 2011.

The Makings of a Great Python Cookbook Recipe

I’ve seen some comments on Twitter, Buzz, Reddit, and elsewhere, and we’ve gotten some suggestions for recipes already via email (thanks!), and both Dave and I thought it’d be good to present a simple-to-follow ‘meta-recipe’; a recipe for making a great recipe that has a good shot at making it into the cookbook.

So let’s get down to what makes a good recipe. These are in no particular order:


When you read a recipe for apple pie, it doesn’t include a diatribe about how to grow and pick apples. This is in part because of space constraints (the book would be huge, or the coverage would be incomplete, take your pick). It’s also partly because you can probably assume that the reader has somehow procured apples and assumes they’ll need them for this recipe and all of that.

In a recipe for, say, an ETL script that hopes to illustrate Python’s useful string manipulation features, you probably don’t need to spend much time explaining what a database is, or take a lot of lines of code to deal with the database. It makes the code longer, and just distracts from the string manipulation goodness you’re trying to relay to the reader.

Short and sweet. “Everything you need, nothing you don’t”.


Recipes for the cookbook should be relatively narrowly focused on illustrating a particular technique, module (built-in or otherwise), or language feature, and bringing it to life. It need not be illustrative of a business process, remotely associated technology, etc.

So, if you want to write a recipe about os.walk, you don’t need to get into the semantics of the ext3 filesystem implementation, because that’s not what you’re trying to illustrate.


Above I noted that the recipe should be relatively narrowly focused on a technique or language feature. It should NOT be narrowly focused in terms of its applicability.

For example, if you wanted to illustrate the usefulness of the Python csv module, awesome! And if you want to mention that csv will attempt to make its output usable in Excel, awesome! But if you wanted to write a recipe called “Supporting Windows ’95 Excel Clients With Python” dealing only with Excel, specifically on Windows ’95, well… that’s really specific, and really a ‘niche’ recipe. It’d be better left for some future ‘Python Hacks’ book or something.

When you read a cookbook, you probably don’t seek out “How to make mulligatawny soup in a Le Creuset™ Dutch Oven Using an Induction Stove at 30,000 Feet”. Likewise, in order to be useful to a wider audience, your recipe should ideally not force so many assumptions onto readers who just want to make a good meal (so to speak).

Our devotion to the practical also means we don’t plan to include any recipes dealing with Fibonacci numbers, factorials, or the like. Leave those for some future “Python Homework Problems” book.


By ‘well-written’, I’m partially just lumping everything I just said all together under one title. However, in addition, I would ask that recipe authors resist the temptation to utilize unnecessary ‘cleverness’ that might make the code harder to read and understand, or be a distraction from what you’re trying to relay to the reader.

Just because you can get the job done with a nested list comprehension doesn’t mean you should. Open up in the code listing to allow easy comprehension by readers at all levels. If you must use nested list comprehensions, perhaps it warrants a separate recipe?

Nested list comprehensions are just an example, of course. I’m sure you can think of others. When you’re looking at your recipe, just ask yourself if there’s a simpler construct, technique, or idiom that can be used to achieve the same goal.


In general, follow the ‘import this’ rules like you would with any other Python code you write. “Sparse is better than dense”, “Readability counts”, etc. In addition, bonus points are given for following PEP 8.

But I’m not just talking about the code. Long-time Python coders (or maybe even not-so-long-time ones) come to realize that the Zen of Python applies not just to code, but to the way you think about your application. When Dave and I are reading recipe descriptions, we’re thinking in that mode. “Would we do this? Why would we do this? When would we do this? Is there a more Pythonic solution to this problem? Can this solution be made more Pythonic?”

When in doubt…

If you’re not sure about any of that, your default action should be to post your recipe on the ActiveState site. The reality is that posting a recipe there will help both the community and yourself. The feedback you get on your recipe will help you become a better coder, and it’ll help people evaluating your recipe to make sound decisions and perhaps consider things they hadn’t. It’s good all over. Getting into the book is just a nice cherry on the sundae.

Also, while unit tests are fantastic, they’re not expected to show up along with the recipe. ActiveState to my knowledge doesn’t have a mechanism for easily including test code alongside (but not embedded in) the recipe code. If you want to use doctest, great. If you want to point us at a recipe you’ve posted, you can include tests in that email, or not. It’s totally unnecessary to include them, although they are appreciated.


If you have questions, email them to Dave and I at PythonCookbook at oreilly dot com. You can also post questions here in the comments of this post.

Good Things Come in Threes: Python Cookbook, Third Edition

It became official earlier today that David Beazley and myself will be co-editing/co-curating the next edition (the Third Edition) of the Python Cookbook. That’s really exciting. Here’s why:

It’s Python 3, Cover to Cover

Go big or go home. The third edition will be a Python 3 Cookbook. This by itself makes this a rather large undertaking, since it means modules used in earlier editions that don’t work in Python 3 can’t be used, and so those old recipes will need to be scrapped or rewritten.

You heard it right: if a module used in the last edition of Python Cookbook doesn’t work in Python 3, it won’t be in this edition. This includes some modules for which several recipes already exist, like dateutil and wxPython, and other modules I would’ve liked to use for illustrative purposes, like Tornado and psycopg2. I guess there’s still some time for smaller modules to port to Python 3 and be left alone in this edition, but I don’t know how realistic that is for something like wxPython.

It’s going to be ok.

I can’t find any modules (yet) in the second edition for which Python 3-compatible substitutes don’t exist, and in some cases I found myself wondering why a separate module was used at all when what needs doing isn’t a whole lot of work in pure Python anyway. I guess if the module is there and stable, why not use it, eh? Fair enough.

Three Authors?

Actually, yes. David, myself, and YOU, where YOU is anyone who posts good Python 3 recipes to the ActiveState ‘Python Cookbook’ site. This is actually not new. If you look at the last edition, you’ll see separate credits for each recipe. The Python Cookbook has always been a community effort, featuring recipes by some very familiar names in the Python community.

Anyway, just in case that wasn’t direct enough:

Go to the ActiveState Python Cookbook site and post a Python 3 recipe, and if it’s solid, your name and recipe may well be in the book.

Basically, ActiveState gives us free reign over their Python Cookbook content, so it’s a convenient way to let the community contribute to the work. If it’s in there, and it’s good, we can use it. They’re cool like that.

Three Questions

Answer these in the comments, or send email to Dave and I at PythonCookbook at oreilly.

  1. What are your three favorite recipes from either the 1st or 2nd edition?
  2. What are your three least favorite recipes from either the 1st or 2nd edition?
  3. What are three things (techniques, modules, basic tasks) you’d like to see covered that weren’t covered in earlier editions?

Three Cool Things About the Third Edition

  1. Tests. When the book comes out, we’ll make the unit tests for the recipes available in some form that is yet to be determined (but they’ll be available).
  2. Porting help. We’re not going to leave module authors out in the cold. We’re going to provide some help/advice. We’ve both written code in Python 3, and dealt with the issues that arise. I’m still porting one of my projects and have another in line after that, so I’ll be dealing with it even more.
  3. Dave and I are both overwhelmed with excitement about this book, about Python 3, and about working with you on it. Come help us out by posting Python 3 recipes (tests are also nice, but not required) on ActiveState, and shoot us an email at PythonCookbook at oreilly dotcom.

There will be other cool things, too. We’ll let you know, so stay tuned to this blog, Dave’s blog, and you should definitely follow @bkjones and @dabeaz on Twitter, since we’ll be asking for opinions/resources/thoughts on things as we go.

Nose and Reporting in Hudson

I like Hudson. Sure, it’s written in Java, but let’s be honest, it kinda rocks. If you’re a Java developer, it’s admittedly worlds better because it integrates with seemingly every Java development tool out there, but we can do some cool things in Python too, and I thought I’d share a really simple setup to get’s HTML reports and nose’s xUnit-style reports into your Hudson interface.

I’m going to assume that you know what these tools are and have them installed. I’m working with a local install of Hudson for this demo, but it’s worth noting that I’ve come to find a local install of Hudson pretty useful, and it doesn’t really eat up too much CPU (so far). More on that in another post. Let’s get moving.

Process Overview

As mentioned, this process is really pretty easy. I’m only documenting it because I haven’t seen it documented before, and someone else might find it handy. So here it is in a nutshell:

  • Install the HTML Publisher plugin
  • Create or alter a configuration for a “free-style software project”
  • Add a Build Step using the ‘Execute Shell’ option, and enter a ‘nosetests’ command, using its built-in support for xUnit-style test reports and
  • Check the ‘Publish HTML Report’, and enter the information required to make Hudson find the HTML report.
  • Build, and enjoy.

Install The HTMLReport Plugin

From the dashboard, click ‘Manage Hudson’, and then on ‘Manage Plugins’. Click on the ‘Available’ tab to see the plugins available for installation. It’s a huge list, so I generally just hit ‘/’ in Firefox or cmd-F in Chrome and search for ‘HTML Publisher Plugin’. Check the box, go to the bottom, and click ‘Install’. Hudson will let you know when it’s done installing, at which time you need to restart Hudson.

Install tab

HTML Publisher Plugin: Check!

Configure a ‘free-style software project’

If you have an existing project already, click on it and then click the ‘Configure’ link in the left column. Otherwise, click on ‘New Job’, and choose ‘Build a free-style software project’ from the list of options. Give the job a name, and click ‘OK’.

Build a free-style software project.

You have to give the job a name to enable the 'ok' button :)

Add a Build Step

In the configuration screen for the job, which you should now be looking at, scroll down and click the button that says ‘Add build step’, and choose ‘Execute shell’ from the resulting menu.

Add Build Step

Execute shell. Mmmmm... shells.

This results in a ‘Command’ textarea appearing, which is where you type the shell command to run. In that box, type this:

/usr/local/bin/nosetests --with-xunit --with-coverage --cover-package demo --cover-html -w tests

Of course, replace ‘demo’ with the name of the package you want covered in your coverage tests to avoid the mess of having try to seek out every module used in your entire application.

We’re telling Nose to generate an xUnit-style report, which by default will be put in the current directory in a file called ‘nosetests.xml’. We’re also asking for coverage analysis using, and requesting an HTML report of the analysis. By default, this is placed in the current directory in ‘cover/index.html’.

execute shell area

Now we need to set up our reports by telling Hudson we want them, and where to find them.

Enable JUnit Reports

In the ‘Post-Build Actions’ area at the bottom of the page, check ‘Publish JUnit test result report’, and make it look like this:

The ‘**’ is part of the Ant Glob Syntax, and stands for the current working directory. Remember that we said earlier nose will publish, by default, to a file called ‘nosetests.xml’ in the current working directory.

The current working directory is going to be the Hudson ‘workspace’ for that job, linked to in the ‘workspace root’ link you see in the above image. It should mostly be a checkout of your source code. Most everything happens relative to the workspace, which is why in my nosetest command you’ll notice I pass ‘-w tests’ to tell nose to look in the ‘tests’ subdirectory of the current working directory.

You could stop right here if you don’t track coverage, just note that these reports don’t get particularly exciting until you’ve run a number of builds.

Enable Coverage Reports

Just under the JUnit reporting checkbox should be the Publish HTML Reports checkbox. The ordering of things can differ depending on the plugins you have installed, but it should at least still be in the Post-build Actions section of the page.

Check the box, and a form will appear. Make it look like this:

By default, will create a directory called ‘cover’ and put its files in there (one for each covered package, and an index). It puts them in the directory you pass to nose with the ‘-w’ flag. If you don’t use a ‘-w’ flag… I dunno — I’d guess it puts it in the directory from where you run nose, in which case the above would become ‘**/cover’ or just ‘cover’ if this option doesn’t use Ant Glob Syntax.

Go Check It Out!

Now that you have everything put together, click on ‘Save’, and run some builds!

On the main page for your job, after you’ve run a build, you should see a ‘ Report’ link and a ‘Latest Test Result’ link. After multiple builds, you should see a test result ‘Trend’ chart on the job’s main page as well.

job page

Almost everything on the page is clickable. The trend graph isn’t too enlightening until multiple builds have run, but I find the reports a nice way to see at-a-glance what chunks of code need work. It’s way nicer than reading the line numbers output on the command line (though I sometimes use those too).

How ’bout you?

If you’ve found other nice tricks in working with Hudson, share! I’ve been using Hudson for a while now, but that doesn’t mean I’m doing anything super cool with it — it just means I know enough to suspect I could be doing way cooler stuff with it that I haven’t gotten around to playing with. :)

Python Packaging, Distribution, and Deployment: Volume 1

This is just Volume 1. I’ll cover as much as I can and just stop when it gets so long most people will stop reading :)

I’ve been getting to know the Python packaging and distribution landscape way better than I ever wanted to over the last couple of weeks. After 2 or 3 weeks now, I’m saddened to report that I still find it quite painful, and not a little bit murky. At least it gets clearer and not murkier as I go on.

I’m a Senior Operations Developer at, which produces a good bit of Python code (and that ‘good bit’ is getting bigger by the day). We also open source lots of stuff (also growing, and not all Python). I’m researching all of this so that when we develop new internal modules, they’re easy to test and deploy on hundreds of machines, and when we decide to open source that module, it’s not painful for us to do that, and we can distribute the packages in a way that is intuitive for other users without jumping through hoops because “we do it different”. One process and pipeline to rule them all, as it were.

There are various components involved in building an internal packaging and distribution standard for Python code. Continuous integration, automated testing, and automated deployment (maybe someday “continuous deployment”) are additional considerations. This is a more difficult problem than I feel it should be, but it’s a pretty interesting one, and I’ll chronicle the adventure here as I have time. Again, this is just Volume 1.

Part 1: Packaging, Distribution, and Deployment

Let’s define the terms. By ‘packaging’ I mean assembling some kind of singular file object containing a Python project, including its source code, data files, and anything it needs in order to be installed. To be clear, this would include something like a file perhaps, and it would not include external dependencies like a NoSQL server or something.

By ‘distribution’, I mean ‘how the heck do you get this beast pushed out to a couple hundred machines or more?’

Those two components are necessary but not sufficient to constitute a ‘deployment’, which I think encompasses the last two terms, but also accounts for things like upgrades, rollbacks, performing start/stop/restarts, running unit tests after it gets to its final destination but before it kills off the version that is currently running happily, and other things that I think make for a reliable, robust application environment.

With definitions out of the way, let’s dive into the fun stuff.

Part 2: Interdependencies

Some knowledge of packaging in Python is helpful when you go to discuss distribution and deployment. The same goes for the other two components. When you start out looking into the various technologies involved, at some point you’re going to look down and notice that pieces of your brain appear to have dropped right out of your ears. Then you’ll reach to pull out your hair only to realize that your brain hasn’t fallen out your ears: it has, in fact, exploded.

If you’re not careful, you’ll find yourself thinking things like ‘if I don’t have a packaging format, how can I know my distribution/deployment method? If I don’t have a deployment method, how do I know what package format to use?’ It’s true that you can run into trouble if you don’t consider the interplay between these components, but it’s also true that the Python landscape isn’t really all that treacherous compared to other jungles I’ve had to survive in.

I believe the key is to just take baby steps. Start simple. Keep the big picture in mind, but decide early to not let the perfect be the enemy of the good. When I started looking into this, I wanted an all-singing all-dancing, fully-automated end-to-end, “developer desktop to production” deployment program that worked at least as well as those hydraulic vacuum thingies at the local bank drive-up windows. I’ll get there, too, but taking baby steps probably means winding up with a better system in the end, in part because it takes some time and experience to even identify the moving parts that need greasing.

So, be aware that it’s possible to get yourself in trouble by racing ahead with, say, eggs as a package format if you plan to use pip to do installation, or if you want to use Fabric for distribution of tarballs but are in a Windows shop with no SSH servers or tarball extractors.

Part 3: Package Formats

  • tar.gz (tarballs)
  • zip
  • egg
  • rpm/deb/ebuild/<os-specific format here>
  • None

If you choose not to decide, you still have made a choice…

Don’t forget that picking a package format also includes the option to not use a package format. I’ve worked on projects of some size that treated a centralized version control system as a central distribution point as well. They’d manually log into a server, do an svn checkout (back when svn was cool and stuff), test it, and if all was well, they’d flip a symlink to point at the newly checked out code and restart. Deployment was not particularly automated (though it could’ve been), but some aspects of the process were surprisingly good, namely:

  • They ran a surprisingly complete set of tests on every package, on the system it was to be deployed on, without interrupting the currently running service. As a result, they had a high level of confidence that all dependencies were met, the code acted predictably, and the code was ‘fit for purpose’ to the extent that you can know these things from running the available tests.
  • Backing out was Mind-Numbingly Easy™ – since moving from one version to the next consisted of changing where a symlink pointed to and restarting the service, backing out meant doing the exact same thing in reverse: point the symlink back at the old directory, and restart.

I would not call that setup “bad”, given the solutions I’ve seen. It just wasn’t automated at all to speak of. It beats to hell what I call the “Pull & Pray” deployment scenario, in which your running service is a VCS checkout, and you manually log in, cd to that directory, do a ‘pull’ or ‘update’ or whatever the command does an in-place update of the code in your VCS, and then just restarting the service. That method is used in an astonishingly large number of projects I’ve worked on in the past. Zero automation, zero testing, and any confidence you might find in a solution like that is, dare I say, hubris.

Python Eggs

I don’t really want to entertain using eggs and the reasoning involves understanding some recent history in the Python packaging and distribution landscape. I’ll try to be brief. If you decide to look deeper, here’s a great post to use as a starting point in your travels.

distutils is built into Python. You create a file, you run ‘python install’, and distutils takes over and does what tells it to. That is all.

Setuptools was a response to features a lot of people wanted in distutils. It’s built atop distutils as a collection of extensions that add these features. Included with setuptools is the easy_install command, which will automatically install egg files.

Setuptools hasn’t been regularly and actively maintained in a year or more, and that got old really fast with developers and other downstream parties, so some folks forked it and created ‘distribute‘, which is setuptools with all of the lingering commits applied that the setuptools maintainer never applied. They also have big plans for distribute going forward. One is to do away with easy_install in favor of pip.

pip, at time of writing, cannot install egg files.

So, in a nutshell, I’m not going to lock myself to setuptools by using eggs, and I’m not going down the road of manually dealing with eggs, and pip doesn’t yet ‘do’ eggs, so in my mind, the whole idea of eggs being a widely-used and widely-supported format is in question, and I’m just not going there.

If I’m way out in left field on any of that, please do let me know.


The Old Faithful of package formats is the venerable tarball. A 30-year-old file format compressed using a 20-year-old compression tool. It still works.

Tarball distribution is dead simple: you create your project, put a file inside, create a tarball of the project, and put it up on a web server somewhere. You can point easy_install or pip at the URL to the tarball, and either tool will happily grab it, unpack it, and run ‘python install’ on it. In addition, users can also easily inspect the contents of the file without pip or easy_install using standard tools, and wide availability of those tools also makes it easy to unpack and install manually if pip or easy_install aren’t available.

Python has a tar module as well, so if you wanted to bypass every other available tool you could easily use Python itself to script a solution that packages your project and uploads it with no external Python module dependencies.

Zip Files

I won’t go into great detail here because I haven’t used zip files on any regular basis in years, but I believe that just about everything I said about tarballs is true for zip files. Python has a zipfile module, zip utilities are widely available, etc. It works.

Distro/OS-specific Package Formats

I’ve put this on the ‘maybe someday’ list. It’d be great if, in addition to specifying Python dependencies, your package installer could also be aware of system-level dependencies that have nothing to do with Python, except that your app requires them. :)

So, if your application is a web app but requires a local memcache instance, RPM can manage that dependency.

I’m not a fan of actually building these things though, and I don’t know many people who are. Sysadmins spend their entire early careerhood praying they’ll never have to debug an RPM spec file, and if they don’t, they should.

That said, the integration of the operations team into the deployment process is, I think, a good thing, and leveraging the tools they already use to manage packages to also manage your application is a win for everyone involved. Sysadmins feel more comfortable with the application because they’re far more comfortable with the tools involved in installing it, and developers are happy because instead of opening five tickets to get all of the system dependencies right, they can hand over the RPM or deb and have the tool deal with those dependencies, or at least have the tool tell the sysadmin “can’t install, you need x, y, and z”, etc.

Even if I went this route someday, I can easily foresee keeping tarballs around, at least to keep developers from having to deal with package managers if they don’t want/need to, or can’t. In the meantime, missing system-level dependencies can be caught when the tests are run on the machine being deployed to.

Let Me Know Your Thoughts

So that’s it for Volume 1. Let me know your thoughts and experiences with different packaging formats, distribution, deployment, whatever. I expect that, as usual in the Python community, the comments on the blog post will be as good as or better than the post itself. :)

PyCharm is My New Python IDE

Friends, family, and maybe regular readers know that I’m more likely to publicly

Regular readers know that I’ve used a large number of IDEs over the past several years. They also know that I have, in every single case, returned to Vim, and I’ve spent a lot of time and effort making Vim be a more productive tool for me.

No more. I’m using PyCharm. It’s my primary code editor.

I’ve been using it since the very early EAP releases — maybe the first EAP release. I have rarely been disappointed, and when I was, it was fixed fairly rapidly. Here’s a quick overview of the good and bad.

Vim Keybindings!

I’ve been using Vi and Vim for an extremely long time. Long enough that whenever I’m editing text, I instinctively execute Vi keystrokes to navigate. Apparently my brain just works that way and isn’t going to stop. When I use other editors, and talk to users of other editors, one of the first things that comes up is how to do things efficiently by exploiting the keyboard shortcuts provided by the editor, so why reinvent the wheel? Why make me learn yet another collection of key strokes to get things done?

Sure, Vi keybindings are a pretty much completely arbitrary set of shortcuts, but so are whatever shortcuts anyone else is going to come up with. I’m glad that PyCharm decided to let the Vi-using community easily embrace its IDE.

And, by the way, PyCharm has by far the best and most complete Vi emulation mode I’ve ever seen in any IDE.

Git Integration

Well, not just git, but I use git. The git integration isn’t 100% flawless, but it’s perfect for most day-to-day needs. I use it with local repositories, as well as a centralized one at work, in addition to GitHub. Updating the project works really well, and lets me easily see what changes were applied. Likewise, when I’m ready to push and a file shows up in the list I didn’t recall changing, a quick double-click let’s me see what’s going on in a very nice diff viewer.

The most recent EAP release of PyCharm adds GitHub support specifically, in addition to Git. I’m not sure what that’s about just yet, because I’ve been perfectly happy using PyCharm with GitHub for quite some time. I’ll have to report further on that later.

It Gets Python Right

This is pretty huge. PyCharm makes me a more productive coder because it points out when I’ve done something goofy. If I mistype a variable, forget a colon, or whatever, I expect any editor to let me know, but PyCharm goes further than that. It’ll let me know if I’ve inadvertently changed the signature in a method I’m overriding in a subclass. With a single click, it’ll also open up the file the overridden method lives in and show me the method. That rocks.

It’ll also suggest imports if it can’t resolve a reference I’ve made in my code. Pressing alt+Enter adds the import to the file (at the top, not inline) without moving the cursor.

Code completion is good, but it’s not actually the reason I use an IDE, so I’m not one of those people who opens an IDE, types two lines into it, judges the outcome, and never comes back if it’s not precisely what I expect. I want to see how the overall environment makes me more productive. Code completion has always been more ‘gravy’ than ‘meat’ to me. I do happen to like that when I make a method call, PyCharm very unobtrusively and without taking over shows me the method signature. I honestly don’t require more than that.

Indentation, I must say, is very good. I don’t think perfection exists, but PyCharm comes closer than most. One detail I rather like is that PyCharm will automatically dedent after a return statement. This attention to detail pervades PyCharm, and pretty much guarantees I’ll miss a lot of cool features in PyCharm that I use all the time without thinking about it. My bad.

Run Configurations

It’s pretty easy to do just about whatever you want to do to run your code. For example, I use nosetests and within PyCharm. Another PyCharm user I know uses pylint in PyCharm. I recently added a pep8 run configuration to PyCharm, and I have a pylint configuration too (though I’ve found that pylint doesn’t actually tell me much about my code I don’t already know, so it’s kind of a nag: “Yeah yeah, I’ll fix it” I find myself saying.)

Point is, if there’s a tool you use in your development process, it’s probably doable from within PyCharm, so you don’t have to break your focus.


I really only have a couple of minor nits about PyCharm. I’ll put them here just so you don’t think I’m getting paid to do this or something (‘cos believe me, nobody would pay me to say these things about their product):

  1. It’s kind of a beast in terms of performance. There’s a certain threshold after which shiny splash screens and pretty icons fail to hide the fact that your app is just a bear. I have a desktop with 4GB RAM and it runs “ok”. It’s reasonably fast. One thing I’ll note about it is that the performance, for whatever reason, doesn’t seem to get exponentially worse as more windows are added.
  2. Window crippling: I hate applications that refuse to let you activate a window when a dialog it considers more important is open. If I have the git commit dialog open, I should be able to start writing a commit message, refer back to the code by clicking the editor window, then click back and finish my message. It’s one example. Others abound. It’s damned annoying at times.
  3. It seems to still fail parsing docstrings. I’m surprised this is still broken. Basically, if I put a docstring in triple quotes at the module level, it marks the docstring as problematic, saying ‘line appears to do nothing’. Well, duh — it’s a docstring.
  4. I find its support for git branches to be really really clumsy to use. You can create new branches, set up tracking branches, etc., but it’s very confusing and unintuitive, and the documentation for the features don’t seem to use terminology I as a git user am familiar with. I actually don’t do my branching operations in PyCharm as of right now because I don’t want to screw anything up.

Overall Opinion: It’s a Win

At least 3 people who know me well are falling out of their chairs, or at least wondering who kidnapped me and took over my blog and started writing nice things about IDEs. It’s not something I really… do.

Look, PyCharm is a win. I don’t like every single thing about it, but here’s the deal:

  1. It does a great many things at least reasonably well (many much better than that).
  2. It does a bunch of other things in a way that is at least not broken (I have issues with some of their UI decisions for some obscure functions, but the functions do work)
  3. It doesn’t actually massively screw up anything that I’ve been able to find.
  4. It tries.

By “It tries”, what I mean is that the PyCharm team seems to go out of its way to make sure that the existing features work, that new features aren’t broken upon release for the sake of saying “HEY, NEW FEATURE!”, and that the finer details of Python don’t go ignored.

I once (ok, maybe twice) tweeted about PyCharm’s inability to just… open a file. Sometimes I want to do that. You know… open a file. Sometimes more than one. Sometimes I’m working on a project, and in the spirit of code reuse I want to open two or three other files from other projects as a handy reference, or to double check my work if tests fail (heck, I might just want the test code!). PyCharm used to make that impossible, but within about a month of my mentioning it on Twitter it’s now implemented in the most recent EAP. Others have had similar experiences. They’re responsive. They try. It’s appreciated.

Python Date Manipulation

This post is the result of some head-scratching and note taking I did for a reporting project I undertook recently. It’s not a complete rundown of Python date manipulation, but hopefully the post (and hopefully the comments) will help you and maybe me too :)

The head-scratching is related to the fact that there are several different time-related objects, spread out over a few different time-related modules in Python, and I have found myself in plenty of instances where I needed to mix and match various methods and objects from different modules to get what I needed (which I thought was pretty simple at first glance). Here are a few nits to get started with:

  • strftime/strptime can generate the “day of week” where Sunday is 0, but there’s no way to tell any of the conversion functions like gmtime() that you want your week to start on Sunday as far as I know. I’m happy to be wrong, so leave comments if I am. It seems odd that you can do a sort of conversion like this when you output, but not within the calculation logic.
  • If you have a struct_time object in localtime format and want to convert it to an epoch date, time.mktime() works, but if your struct_time object is in UTC format, you have to use calendar.timegm() — this is lame and needs to go away. Just add timegm() to the time module (possibly renamed?).
  • time.ctime() will convert an epoch date into nicely formatted local time, but there’s no function to provide the equivalent output for UTC time.

There are too many methods and modules for dealing with date manipulation in Python, such that performing fairly common tasks requires importing and using a few different modules, different object types and methods from each. I’d love this to be cleaned up. I’d love it more if I were qualified to do it. More learning probably needs to happen for that. Anyway, just my $.02.

Mission 1: Calculating Week Start/End Dates Where Week Starts on Sunday

My mission: Pull epoch dates from a database. They were generated on a machine whose time does not use UTC, but rather local time (GMT-4).  Given the epoch date, find the start and end of the previous week, where the first day of the week is Sunday, and the last day of the week is Saturday.

So, I need to be able to get a week start/end range, from Sunday at 00:00 through Saturday at 23:59:59. My initial plan of attack was to calculate midnight of the current day, and then base my calculations for Sunday 00:00 on that, using simple timedelta(days=x) manipulations. Then I could do something like calculate the next Sunday and subtract a second to get Saturday at 23:59:59.

Nothing but ‘time’

In this iteration, I’ll try to accomplish my mission using only the ‘time’ module and some epoch math.

Seems like you should be able to easily get the epoch value for midnight of the current epoch date, and display it easily with time.ctime(). This isn’t quite true, however. See here:

>>> etime = int(time.time())
>>> time.ctime(etime)
'Thu May 20 15:26:40 2010'
>>> etime_midnight = etime - (etime % 86400)
>>> time.ctime(etime_midnight)
'Wed May 19 20:00:00 2010'

The reason this doesn’t do what you might expect is that time.ctime() in this case outputs the local time, which in this case is UTC-4 (I live near NY, USA, and we’re currently in DST. The timezone is EDT now, and EST in winter). So when you do math on the raw epoch timestamp (etime), you’re working with a bare integer that has no idea about time zones. Therefore, you have to account for that. Let’s try again:

>>> etime = int(time.time())
>>> etime
>>> etime_midnight = (etime - (etime % 86400)) + time.altzone
>>> time.ctime(etime_midnight)
'Thu May 20 00:00:00 2010'

So, why is this necessary? It might be clearer if we throw in a call to gmtime() and also make the math bits more transparent:

>>> etime
>>> time.ctime(etime)
'Thu May 20 15:34:09 2010'
>>> etime % 86400
>>> (etime % 86400) / 3600
>>> time.gmtime(etime)
time.struct_time(tm_year=2010, tm_mon=5, tm_mday=20, tm_hour=19, tm_min=34, tm_sec=9, tm_wday=3, tm_yday=140, tm_isdst=0)
>>> midnight = etime - (etime % 86400)
>>> time.gmtime(midnight)
time.struct_time(tm_year=2010, tm_mon=5, tm_mday=20, tm_hour=0, tm_min=0, tm_sec=0, tm_wday=3, tm_yday=140, tm_isdst=0)
>>> time.ctime(midnight)
'Wed May 19 20:00:00 2010'
>>> time.altzone
>>> time.altzone / 3600
>>> midnight = (etime - (etime % 86400)) + time.altzone
>>> time.gmtime(midnight)
time.struct_time(tm_year=2010, tm_mon=5, tm_mday=20, tm_hour=4, tm_min=0, tm_sec=0, tm_wday=3, tm_yday=140, tm_isdst=0)
>>> time.ctime(midnight)
'Thu May 20 00:00:00 2010'

What’s that now? You want what? You want the epoch timestamp for the previous Sunday at midnight? Well, let’s see. The time module in Python doesn’t do deltas per se. You can calculate things out using the epoch bits and some math if you wish. The only bit that’s really missing is the day of the week our current epoch timestamp lives on.

>>> time.ctime(midnight)
'Thu May 20 00:00:00 2010'
>>> struct_midnight = time.localtime(midnight)
>>> struct_midnight
time.struct_time(tm_year=2010, tm_mon=5, tm_mday=20, tm_hour=0, tm_min=0, tm_sec=0, tm_wday=3, tm_yday=140, tm_isdst=1)
>>> dow = struct_midnight.tm_wday
>>> dow
>>> midnight_sunday = midnight - ((dow + 1) * 86400)
>>> time.ctime(midnight_sunday)
'Sun May 16 00:00:00 2010'

You can do this going forward in time from the epoch time as well. Remember, we also want to grab 23:59:59 on the Saturday after the epoch timestamp you now have:

>>> saturday_night = midnight + ((5 - dow+1) * 86400) - 1
>>> time.ctime(saturday_night)
'Sat May 22 23:59:59 2010'

And that’s how you do date manipulation using *only* the time module. Elegant,no?

No. Not really.

Unfortunately, the alternatives also aren’t the most elegant in the world, imho. So let’s try doing this all another way, using the datetime module and timedelta objects.

Now with datetime!

The documentation for the datetime module says:

“While date and time arithmetic is supported, the focus of the implementation is on efficient member extraction for output formatting and manipulation.”

Hm. Sounds a lot like what the time module functions do. Some conversion here or there, but no real arithmetic support. We had to pretty much do it ourselves mucking about with epoch integer values. So what’s this buy us over the time module?

Let’s try to do our original task using the datetime module. We’re going to start with an epoch timestamp, and calculate the values for the previous Sunday at midnight, and the following Saturday at 23:59:59.

The first thing I had a hard time finding was a way to deal with the notion of a “week”. I thought I’d found it in ‘date.timetuple()’, which help(date.timetuple) says is “compatible with time.localtime()”. I guess they must mean that the output is the same as time.localtime(), because I can’t find any other way in which it is similar. Running time.localtime() with no arguments returns a time_struct object for the current time. date.timetuple() requires arguments or it’ll throw an error, and to make you extra frustrated, the arguments it takes aren’t in the docs or the help() output.

So maybe they mean it takes the same arguments as time.localtime(), eh? Not so much — time.localtime() takes an int representing an epoch timestamp. Trying to feed an int to date.timetuple throws an error saying it requires a ‘date’ object.

So, the definition of “compatible” is a little unclear to me in this context.

So here I’ve set about finding today, then “last saturday”, and then “the sunday before the last saturday”:

def get_last_whole_week(today=None):
    # a date object
    date_today = today or

    # day 0 is Monday. Sunday is 6.
    dow_today = date_today.weekday()

    if dow_today == 6:
        days_ago_saturday = 1
    # If day between 0-5, to get last saturday, we need to go to day 0 (Monday), then two more days.
        days_ago_saturday = dow_today + 2

    # Make a timedelta object so we can do date arithmetic.
    delta_saturday = datetime.timedelta(days=days_ago_saturday)

    # saturday is now a date object representing last saturday
    saturday = date_today - delta_saturday

    # timedelta object representing '6 days'...
    delta_prevsunday = datetime.timedelta(days=6)

    # Making a date object. Subtract the days from saturday to get "the Sunday before that".
    prev_sunday = saturday - delta_prevsunday

This gets me date objects representing the start and end time of my reporting range… sort of. I need them in epoch format, and I need to specifically start at midnight on Sunday and end on 23:59:59 on Saturday night. Sunday at midnight is no problem: timetuple() sets time elements to 0 anyway. For Saturday night, in epoch format, I should probably just calculate a date object for two Sundays a week apart, and subtract one second from one of them to get the last second of the previous Saturday.

Here’s the above function rewritten to return a tuple containing the start and end dates of the previous week. It can optionally be returned in epoch format, but the default is to return date objects.

def get_last_whole_week(today=None, epoch=False):
    # a date object
    date_today = today or
    print "date_today: ", date_today

    # By default day 0 is Monday. Sunday is 6.
    dow_today = date_today.weekday()
    print "dow_today: ", dow_today

    if dow_today == 6:
        days_ago_saturday = 1
        # If day between 0-5, to get last saturday, we need to go to day 0 (Monday), then two more days.
        days_ago_saturday = dow_today + 2
    print "days_ago_saturday: ", days_ago_saturday
    # Make a timedelta object so we can do date arithmetic.
    delta_saturday = datetime.timedelta(days=days_ago_saturday)
    print "delta_saturday: ", delta_saturday
    # saturday is now a date object representing last saturday
    saturday = date_today - delta_saturday
    print "saturday: ", saturday
    # timedelta object representing '6 days'...
    delta_prevsunday = datetime.timedelta(days=6)
    # Making a date object. Subtract the 6 days from saturday to get "the Sunday before that".
    prev_sunday = saturday - delta_prevsunday

    # we need to return a range starting with midnight on a Sunday, and ending w/ 23:59:59 on the
    # following Saturday... optionally in epoch format.

    if epoch:
        # saturday is date obj = 'midnight saturday'. We want the last second of the day, not the first.
        saturday_epoch = time.mktime(saturday.timetuple()) + 86399
        prev_sunday_epoch = time.mktime(prev_sunday.timetuple())
        last_week = (prev_sunday_epoch, saturday_epoch)
        saturday_str = saturday.strftime('%Y-%m-%d')
        prev_sunday_str = prev_sunday.strftime('%Y-%m-%d')
        last_week = (prev_sunday_str, saturday_str)
    return last_week

It would be easier to just have some attribute for datetime objects that lets you set the first day of the week to be Sunday instead of Monday. It wouldn’t completely alleviate every conceivable issue with calculating dates, but it would be a help. The calendar module has a setfirstweekday() method that lets you set the first weekday to whatever you want. I gather this is mostly for formatting output of matrix calendars, but it would be useful if it could be used in date calculations as well. Perhaps I’ve missed something? Clues welcome.

Mission 2: Calculate the Prior Month’s Start and End Dates

This should be easy. What I hoped would happen is I’d be able to get today’s date, and then create a timedelta object for ’1 month’, and subtract, having Python take care of things like changing the year when the current month is January. Calculating this yourself is a little messy: you can’t just use “30 days” or “31 days” as the length of a month, because:

  1. “January 31″ – “30 days” = “January 1″ — not the previous month.
  2. “March 1″ – “31 days” = “January 30″ — also not the previous month.

Instead, what I did was this:

  1. create a datetime object for the first day of the current month (hard coding the ‘day’ argument)
  2. used a timedelta object to subtract a day, which gives me a datetime object for the last day of the prior month (with year changed for me if needed),
  3. used that object to create a datetime object for the first day of the prior month (again hardcoding the ‘day’ argument)

Here’s some code:

today =
first_day_current = datetime.datetime(today.year, today.month, 1)
last_day_previous = first_day_current - datetime.timedelta(days=1)
first_day_previous = datetime.datetime(last_day_previous.year, last_day_previous.month, 1)
print 'Today: ', today
print 'First day of this month: ', first_day_current
print 'Last day of last month: ', last_day_previous
print 'First day of last month: ', first_day_previous

This outputs:

Today:  2010-07-06 09:57:33.066446
First day of this month:  2010-07-01 00:00:00
Last day of last month:  2010-06-30 00:00:00
First day of last month:  2010-06-01 00:00:00

Not nearly as onerous as the week start/end range calculations, but I kind of thought that between all of these modules we have that one of them would be able to find me the start and end of the previous month. The raw material for creating this is, I suspect, buried somewhere in the source code for the calendar module, which can tell you the start and end dates for a month, but can’t do any date calculations to give you the previous month. The datetime module can do calculation, but it can’t tell you the start and end dates for a month. The datetime.timedelta object’s largest granularity is ‘week’ if memory serves, so you can’t just do ‘timedelta(months=1)’, because the deltas are all converted internally to a fixed number of days, seconds, or milliseconds, and a month isn’t a fixed number of any of them.


While I could probably go ahead and use dateutil, which is really darn flexible, I’d rather be able to do this without a third-party module. Also, dateutil’s flexibility is not without it’s complexity, either. It’s not an insurmountable task to learn, but it’s not like you can directly transfer your experience with the built-in modules to using dateutil.

I don’t think merging all of the time-related modules in Python would be necessary or even desirable, really, but I haven’t thought deeply about it. Perhaps a single module could provide a superclass for the various time-related objects currently spread across three modules, and they could share some base level functionality. Hard to conceive of a timedelta object not floating alone in space in that context, but alas, I’m thinking out loud. Perhaps a dive into the code is in order.

What have you had trouble doing with dates and times in Python? What docs have I missed? What features are completely missing from Python in terms of time manipulation that would actually be useful enough to warrant inclusion in the collection of included batteries? Let me know your thoughts.